PACS 2010 Regular Edition—Sec. 20

20. NUCLEAR PHYSICS
 
21. Nuclear structure (for nucleon structure, see 14.20.Dh Properties of protons and neutrons; 13.40.-f for electromagnetic processes and properties; 13.60.Hb for deep-inelastic structure functions)
 
21.10.-k Properties of nuclei; nuclear energy levels (for properties of specific nuclei listed by mass ranges, see section 27)
 
21.10.Dr Binding energies and masses
 
21.10.Ft Charge distribution
 
21.10.Gv Nucleon distributions and halo features
 
21.10.Hw Spin, parity, and isobaric spin
 
21.10.Jx Spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients
 
21.10.Ky Electromagnetic moments
 
21.10.Ma Level density
 
21.10.Pc Single-particle levels and strength functions
 
21.10.Re Collective levels
 
21.10.Sf Coulomb energies, analogue states
 
21.10.Tg Lifetimes, widths
 
21.30.-x Nuclear forces (see also 13.75.Cs Nucleon-nucleon interactions)
 
21.30.Cb Nuclear forces in vacuum
 
21.30.Fe Forces in hadronic systems and effective interactions
 
21.45.-v Few-body systems
 
21.45.Bc Two-nucleon system
 
21.45.Ff Three-nucleon forces
 
21.60.-n Nuclear structure models and methods
 
21.60.Cs Shell model
 
21.60.De Ab initio methods
 
21.60.Ev Collective models
 
21.60.Fw Models based on group theory
 
21.60.Gx Cluster models
 
21.60.Jz Nuclear Density Functional Theory and extensions (includes Hartree-Fock and random-phase approximations)
 
21.60.Ka Monte Carlo models
 
21.65.-f Nuclear matter (for exotic atoms and molecules, see 36.10.-k)
 
21.65.Cd Asymmetric matter, neutron matter
 
21.65.Ef Symmetry energy
 
21.65.Jk Mesons in nuclear matter
 
21.65.Mn Equations of state of nuclear matter (see also 26.60.Kp Equations of state of neutron-star matter)
 
21.65.Qr Quark matter (see also 12.38.Mh Quark-gluon plasma in quantum chromodynamics; 25.75.Nq Quark deconfinement, quark-gluon plasma production and phase transitions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions)
 
21.80.+a Hypernuclei
 
21.85.+d Mesic nuclei
 
21.90.+f Other topics in nuclear structure (restricted to new topics in section 21)
 
23. Radioactive decay and in-beam spectroscopy
 
23.20.-g Electromagnetic transitions
 
23.20.En Angular distribution and correlation measurements
 
23.20.Gq Multipole mixing ratios
 
23.20.Js Multipole matrix elements
 
23.20.Lv γ transitions and level energies
 
23.20.Nx Internal conversion and extranuclear effects (including Auger electrons and internal bremsstrahlung)
 
23.20.Ra Internal pair production
 
23.35.+g Isomer decay
 
23.40.-s β decay; double β decay; electron and muon capture
 
23.40.Bw Weak-interaction and lepton (including neutrino) aspects (see also 14.60.Pq Neutrino mass and mixing)
 
23.40.Hc Relation with nuclear matrix elements and nuclear structure
 
23.50.+z Decay by proton emission
 
23.60.+e α decay
 
23.70.+j Heavy-particle decay
 
23.90.+w Other topics in radioactive decay and in-beam spectroscopy (restricted to new topics in section 23)
 
24. Nuclear reactions: general
 
24.10.-i Nuclear reaction models and methods
 
24.10.Cn Many-body theory
 
24.10.Eq Coupled-channel and distorted-wave models
 
24.10.Ht Optical and diffraction models
 
24.10.Jv Relativistic models
 
24.10.Lx Monte Carlo simulations (including hadron and parton cascades and string breaking models)
 
24.10.Nz Hydrodynamic models
 
24.10.Pa Thermal and statistical models
 
24.30.-v Resonance reactions
 
24.30.Cz Giant resonances
 
24.30.Gd Other resonances
 
24.50.+g Direct reactions
 
24.60.-k Statistical theory and fluctuations
 
24.60.Dr Statistical compound-nucleus reactions
 
24.60.Gv Statistical multistep direct reactions
 
24.60.Ky Fluctuation phenomena
 
24.60.Lz Chaos in nuclear systems
 
24.70.+s Polarization phenomena in reactions
 
24.75.+i General properties of fission
 
24.80.+y Nuclear tests of fundamental interactions and symmetries
 
24.85.+p Quarks, gluons, and QCD in nuclear reactions
 
24.87.+y Surrogate reactions
 
24.90.+d Other topics in nuclear reactions: general (restricted to new topics in section 24)
 
25. Nuclear reactions: specific reactions
 
25.10.+s Nuclear reactions involving few-nucleon systems
 
25.20.-x Photonuclear reactions
 
25.20.Dc Photon absorption and scattering
 
25.20.Lj Photoproduction reactions
 
25.30.-c Lepton-induced reactions
 
25.30.Bf Elastic electron scattering
 
25.30.Dh Inelastic electron scattering to specific states
 
25.30.Fj Inelastic electron scattering to continuum
 
25.30.Hm Positron-induced reactions
 
25.30.Mr Muon-induced reactions (including the EMC effect)
 
25.30.Pt Neutrino-induced reactions
 
25.30.Rw Electroproduction reactions
 
25.40.-h Nucleon-induced reactions (see also 28.20.-v Neutron physics)
 
25.40.Cm Elastic proton scattering
 
25.40.Dn Elastic neutron scattering
 
25.40.Ep Inelastic proton scattering
 
25.40.Fq Inelastic neutron scattering
 
25.40.Hs Transfer reactions
 
25.40.Kv Charge-exchange reactions
 
25.40.Lw Radiative capture
 
25.40.Ny Resonance reactions
 
25.40.Qa (p, π) reactions
 
25.40.Sc Spallation reactions
 
25.40.Ve Other reactions above meson production thresholds (energies > 400 MeV)
 
25.43.+t Antiproton-induced reactions
 
25.45.-z 2H-induced reactions
 
25.45.De Elastic and inelastic scattering
 
25.45.Hi Transfer reactions
 
25.45.Kk Charge-exchange reactions
 
25.55.-e 3H-, 3He-, and 4He-induced reactions
 
25.55.Ci Elastic and inelastic scattering
 
25.55.Hp Transfer reactions
 
25.55.Kr Charge-exchange reactions
 
25.60.-t Reactions induced by unstable nuclei
 
25.60.Bx Elastic scattering
 
25.60.Dz Interaction and reaction cross sections
 
25.60.Gc Breakup and momentum distributions
 
25.60.Je Transfer reactions
 
25.60.Lg Charge-exchange reactions
 
25.60.Pj Fusion reactions
 
25.60.Tv Radiative capture
 
25.70.-z Low and intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions
 
25.70.Bc Elastic and quasielastic scattering
 
25.70.De Coulomb excitation
 
25.70.Ef Resonances
 
25.70.Gh Compound nucleus
 
25.70.Hi Transfer reactions
 
25.70.Jj Fusion and fusion-fission reactions
 
25.70.Kk Charge-exchange reactions
 
25.70.Lm Strongly damped collisions
 
25.70.Mn Projectile and target fragmentation
 
25.70.Pq Multifragment emission and correlations
 
25.75.-q Relativistic heavy-ion collisions (collisions induced by light ions studied to calibrate relativistic heavy-ion collisions should be classified under both 25.75.-q and sections 13 or 25 appropriate to the light ions)
 
25.75.Ag Global features in relativistic heavy ion collisions
 
25.75.Bh Hard scattering in relativistic heavy ion collisions
 
25.75.Cj Photon, lepton, and heavy quark production in relativistic heavy ion collisions
 
25.75.Dw Particle and resonance production
 
25.75.Gz Particle correlations and fluctuations
 
25.75.Ld Collective flow
 
25.75.Nq Quark deconfinement, quark-gluon plasma production, and phase transitions (see also 12.38.Mh Quark-gluon plasma in quantum chromodynamics; 21.65.Qr Quark matter in nuclear matter)
 
25.80.-e Meson- and hyperon-induced reactions
 
25.80.Dj Pion elastic scattering
 
25.80.Ek Pion inelastic scattering
 
25.80.Gn Pion charge-exchange reactions
 
25.80.Hp Pion-induced reactions
 
25.80.Ls Pion inclusive scattering and absorption
 
25.80.Nv Kaon-induced reactions
 
25.80.Pw Hyperon-induced reactions
 
25.85.-w Fission reactions
 
25.85.Ca Spontaneous fission
 
25.85.Ec Neutron-induced fission
 
25.85.Ge Charged-particle-induced fission
 
25.85.Jg Photofission
 
25.90.+k Other topics in nuclear reactions: specific reactions (restricted to new topics in section 25)
 
26. Nuclear astrophysics (see also 95.30.-k Fundamental aspects of astrophysics in astronomy)
 
26.20.-f Hydrostatic stellar nucleosynthesis (see also 97.10.Cv Stellar structure, interiors, evolution, nucleosynthesis, ages in astronomy)
 
26.20.Cd Stellar hydrogen burning
 
26.20.Fj Stellar helium burning
 
26.20.Kn s-process
 
26.20.Np Nucleosynthesis in late stellar evolution
 
26.20.Qr Quasistatistical processes
 
26.30.-k Nucleosynthesis in novae, supernovae, and other explosive environments
 
26.30.Ca Explosive burning in accreting binary systems (novae, x-ray bursts)
 
26.30.Ef Explosive burning in supernovae shock fronts
 
26.30.Hj r-process
 
26.30.Jk Weak interaction and neutrino induced processes, galactic radioactivity
 
26.35.+c Big Bang nucleosynthesis (see also 98.80.Ft Origin, formation, and abundances of the elements in astronomy)
 
26.40.+r Cosmic ray nucleosynthesis
 
26.50.+x Nuclear physics aspects of novae, supernovae, and other explosive environments
 
26.60.-c Nuclear matter aspects of neutron stars
 
26.60.Dd Neutron star core
 
26.60.Gj Neutron star crust
 
26.60.Kp Equations of state of neutron-star matter
 
26.65.+t Solar neutrinos (see also 96.60.Vg Particle emission, solar wind in solar physics)
 
26.90.+n Other topics in nuclear astrophysics (restricted to new topics in section 26)
 
27. Properties of specific nuclei listed by mass ranges (an additional heading must be chosen with these entries, where the given mass number limits are, to some degree, arbitrary)
 
27.10.+h A ≤ 5
 
27.20.+n 6 ≤ A ≤ 19
 
27.30.+t 20 ≤ A ≤ 38
 
27.40.+z 39 ≤ A ≤ 58
 
27.50.+e 59 ≤ A ≤ 89
 
27.60.+j 90 ≤ A ≤ 149
 
27.70.+q 150 ≤ A ≤ 189
 
27.80.+w 190 ≤ A ≤ 219
 
27.90.+b A ≥ 220
 
28. Nuclear engineering and nuclear power studies
 
28.20.-v Neutron physics (see also 25.40.-h Nucleon-induced reactions and 25.85.Ec Neutron-induced fission)
 
28.20.Cz Neutron scattering
 
28.20.Fc Neutron absorption
 
28.20.Gd Neutron transport: diffusion and moderation
 
28.20.Ka Thermal neutron cross sections
 
28.20.Np Neutron capture γ-rays
 
28.20.Pr Neutron imaging; neutron tomography
 
28.41.-i Fission reactors (see also 89.30.Gg nuclear fission power in energy resources)
 
28.41.Ak Theory, design, and computerized simulation
 
28.41.Bm Fuel elements, preparation, reloading, and reprocessing
 
28.41.Fr Reactor coolants, reactor cooling, and heat recovery
 
28.41.Kw Radioactive wastes, waste disposal
 
28.41.My Reactor control systems
 
28.41.Pa Moderators
 
28.41.Qb Structural and shielding materials
 
28.41.Rc Instrumentation
 
28.41.Te Protection systems, safety, radiation monitoring, accidents, and dismantling
 
28.41.Vx Fuel cycles
 
28.50.-k Fission reactor types
 
28.50.Dr Research reactors
 
28.50.Ft Fast and breeder reactors
 
28.50.Hw Power and production reactors
 
28.50.Ky Propulsion reactors
 
28.50.Ma Auxiliary generators
 
28.52.-s Fusion reactors (see also 52.55.-s Magnetic confinement and equilibrium, 52.57.-z Laser inertial confinement, and 52.58.-c Other confinement methods in physics of plasmas; 89.30.Jj Nuclear fusion power in energy resources)
 
28.52.Av Theory, design, and computerized simulation
 
28.52.Cx Fueling, heating and ignition
 
28.52.Fa Materials
 
28.52.Lf Components and instrumentation
 
28.52.Nh Safety (see also 87.55.N- Radiation monitoring, control, and safety in biological and medical physics)
 
28.60.+s Isotope separation and enrichment
 
28.65.+a Accelerator-driven transmutation of nuclear waste
 
28.70.+y Nuclear explosions (see also 47.40.-x Compressible flows; shock waves; for radiation protection from fallout, see 87.53.Bn; for nuclear explosion seismology, see 91.30.Rz)
 
28.90.+i Other topics in nuclear engineering and nuclear power studies (restricted to new topics in section 28)
 
29. Experimental methods and instrumentation for elementary-particle and nuclear physics
 
29.20.-c Accelerators (for accelerators used in medical applications, see 87.56.bd)
 
29.20.Ba Electrostatic accelerators
 
29.20.D- Cyclic accelerators and storage rings
 
29.20.db Storage rings and colliders
 
29.20.df Betatrons
 
29.20.dg Cyclotrons
 
29.20.dk Synchrotrons
 
29.20.Ej Linear accelerators
 
29.25.-t Particle sources and targets (see also 52.59.-f Intense particle beams and radiation sources in physics of plasmas; 87.56.bg Radioactive sources in medical physics)
 
29.25.Bx Electron sources
 
29.25.Dz Neutron sources
 
29.25.Lg Ion sources: polarized
 
29.25.Ni Ion sources: positive and negative
 
29.25.Pj Polarized and other targets
 
29.25.Rm Sources of radioactive nuclei
 
29.27.-a Beams in particle accelerators (for low energy charged-particle beams, see 41.75.-i and 41.85.-p)
 
29.27.Ac Beam injection and extraction
 
29.27.Bd Beam dynamics; collective effects and instabilities
 
29.27.Eg Beam handling; beam transport
 
29.27.Fh Beam characteristics
 
29.27.Hj Polarized beams
 
29.30.-h Spectrometers and spectroscopic techniques (for energy loss and stopping power, see 34.50.Bw in atomic physics, and 61.85.+p in condensed matter physics)
 
29.30.Aj Charged-particle spectrometers: electric and magnetic
 
29.30.Dn Electron spectroscopy
 
29.30.Ep Charged-particle spectroscopy
 
29.30.Hs Neutron spectroscopy
 
29.30.Kv X- and γ-ray spectroscopy
 
29.30.Lw Nuclear orientation devices
 
29.38.-c Radioactive beams
 
29.38.Db Fast radioactive beam techniques
 
29.38.Gj Reaccelerated radioactive beams
 
29.40.-n Radiation detectors (for mass spectrometers, see 07.75.+h; see also 95.55.Vj Neutrino, muon, pion, and other particle detectors; cosmic ray detectors in astronomy)
 
29.40.Cs Gas-filled counters: ionization chambers, proportional, and avalanche counters
 
29.40.Gx Tracking and position-sensitive detectors
 
29.40.Ka Cherenkov detectors
 
29.40.Mc Scintillation detectors
 
29.40.Rg Nuclear emulsions
 
29.40.Vj Calorimeters
 
29.40.Wk Solid-state detectors
 
29.50.+v Computer interfaces
 
29.85.-c Computer data analysis
 
29.85.Ca Data acquisition and sorting
 
29.85.Fj Data analysis
 
29.87.+g Nuclear data compilation
 
29.90.+r Other topics in elementary-particle and nuclear physics experimental methods and instrumentation (restricted to new topics in section 29)