PACS 2010 Regular Edition—Sec. 90

90. GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, AND ASTROPHYSICS (for more detailed headings, see the Geophysics Appendix)
91. Solid Earth physics
91.10.-v Geodesy and gravity (see also 91.50.Kx Gravity and isostasy—in Marine geology and geophysics;—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.10.By Mathematical geodesy; general theory
91.10.Da Cartography
91.10.Fc Space and satellite geodesy; applications of global positioning systems
91.10.Jf Topography; geometric observations
91.10.Kg Crustal movements and deformation
91.10.Lh Photogrammetry
91.10.Nj Rotational variations; polar wobble (see also 92.10.Iv Ocean influence of Earth's rotation)
91.10.Op Gravity anomalies; time variable gravity
91.10.Pp Geodetic techniques; gravimetric measurements and instruments
91.10.Qm Harmonics of the gravity potential field; geopotential theory and determination
... ... ...Rheology of lithosphere and mantle, see 91.32.De, 91.32.Gh
91.10.Sp Satellite orbits
91.10.Tq Earth tides
91.10.Vr Ocean/Earth/atmosphere/ hydrosphere/cryosphere interactions; mass balance
91.10.Ws Reference systems
91.10.Xa Global change from geodesy
91.25.-r Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; geoelectricity (see also 91.50.Iv Marine magnetics and electromagnetics)
91.25.Cw Origins and models of the magnetic field; dynamo theories
91.25.Dx Archeomagnetism
91.25.Ey Interactions between exterior sources and interior properties
91.25.F- Rock and mineral magnetism (see also 91.60.Pn Magnetic and electrical properties—in Physical properties of rocks and minerals)
91.25.fa Biogenic magnetic minerals
91.25.fd Environmental magnetism
91.25.G- Spatial variations in geomagnetism Harmonics and anomalies
91.25.gj Attributed to seafloor spreading
91.25.Le Time variations in geomagnetism
91.25.Mf Magnetic field reversals: process and timescale
91.25.Ng Paleomagnetism
91.25.Ph Magnetostratigraphy
91.25.Qi Geoelectricity, electromagnetic induction, and telluric currents
91.25.Rt Magnetic anomalies; modeling and interpretations
91.25.St Magnetic fabrics and anisotropy
91.25.Th Reference fields: regional; global
91.25.Ux Remagnetization
91.25.Wb Geomagnetic induction
91.25.Xg Geomagnetic excursion
91.25.Za Core processes
91.30.-f Seismology
91.30.Ab Theory and modeling, computational seismology
91.30.Bi Seismic sources (mechanisms, magnitude, moment frequency spectrum)
91.30.Cd Body wave propagation
91.30.Dk Seismicity (see also—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.30.Fn Surface waves and free oscillations
91.30.Ga Subduction zones (see also 91.40.Rs—in Volcanology; 91.45.Hc—in Tectonophysics; 91.50.Wy—in Marine geology and geophysics; 91.67.fc—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.30.Hc Mid-ocean ridges (see also 91.40.St—in Volcanology; 91.50.Rt—in Marine geology and geophysics; 91.67.ff—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.30.Iv Transform faults
91.30.Jk Tomography in seismology (see also 91.35.Pn Tomography of the Earth's interior)
91.30.Mv Strong motions and shock waves
91.30.Nw Tsunamis (see also 92.10.hl—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.30.Px Earthquakes
91.30.Rz Nuclear explosion seismology
91.30.Tb Volcano seismology
91.30.Uv Core and mantle seismology
91.30.Vc Continental crust seismology
91.30.Wx Lithosphere seismology (see also—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.30.Ye Oceanic crust seismology
91.30.Za Paleoseismology
91.32.-m Rheology of the Earth
91.32.Ac General aspects
91.32.De Crust and lithosphere
91.32.Gh Mantle
91.32.Jk Friction of fault zones
91.35.-x Earth's interior structure and properties
91.35.Cb Models of interior structure
91.35.Dc Heat flow; geothermy (see also 91.50.Ln Heat flow (benthic)—in Marine geology and geophysics; see also 88.10.-g Geothermal energy in renewable energy resources and applications)
91.35.Ed Structure of the Earth's interior below the upper mantle
91.35.Gf Structure of the crust and upper mantle
91.35.Lj Composition and state of the Earth's interior (see also—in Geophysics Appendix)
... ... ...Geochronology, see 91.80.+d; and in Geophysics Appendix, see 91.80.-d)
91.35.Pn Tomography of the Earth's interior (see also 91.30.Jk Tomography in seismology)
91.40.-k Volcanology (see also 91.30.Tb Volcano seismology)
91.40.Ac Geochemical modeling
91.40.Bp Tephrochronology; ash deposits
91.40.Dr Atmospheric effects (see also 92.60.Mt Particles and aerosols—in Meteorology)
91.40.Ft Eruption mechanisms
91.40.Ge Hydrothermal systems (see also 91.67.Jk—in Geochemistry; 92.05.Lf—in oceanography)
91.40.Hw Lava rheology and morphology
91.40.Jk Magma migration
91.40.La Physics and chemistry of magma bodies
91.40.Pc Thermodynamics in volcanology
91.40.Qa Reactions and phase equilibria (see also 91.67.De—in Geochemistry)
91.40.Rs Subduction zone processes (see also 91.30.Ga—in Seismology; 91.45.Hc—in Tectonophysics; 91.50.Wy—in Marine geology; 91.67.fc—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.40.St Mid-oceanic ridge processes (see also 91.30.Hc—in Seismology; 91.50.Rt—in Marine geology; 91.67.ff—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.40.Ta Intra-plate processes (see also 91.50.Tb—in Marine geology; 91.67.fh—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.40.Uc Volcanoclastic deposits
91.40.Vg Volcanic gases
91.40.Wx Calderas
91.40.Yt Remote sensing of volcanoes (see also 93.85.Pq)
91.40.Zz Volcano monitoring; volcanic hazards and risks
... ... ...Planetary volcanism, see 96.12.Xy
91.45.-c Tectonophysics
91.45.Bg Planetary interiors (see also 96.12.Pc—in Planetology of solid surface planets; 96.15.Nd—in Planetology of fluid planets)
91.45.Cg Continental tectonics
91.45.Dh Plate tectonics
... ... ...Neotectonics, see—in Geophysics Appendix
91.45.Fj Convection currents and mantle plumes
91.45.Ga Dynamics and mechanics of tectonics
91.45.Hc Subduction and obduction zone processes (see also 91.30.Ga—in Seismology; 91.40.Rs—in Volcanology)
91.45.Jg Hot spots, large igneous provinces, and flood basalt volcanism
91.45.Kn Core processes
91.45.Nc Evolution of the Earth
91.45.Qv Tomography of plate tectonics (see also 91.30.Jk—in Seismology)
91.45.Rg Heat generation and transport
... ... ...Folds and folding, see 91.55.Hj
... ... ...Fractures and faults, see 91.55.Jk
91.45.Wa Volcanic arcs
91.45.Xz Stresses in tectonophysics
... ... ...Hydrothermal systems, see 91.40.Ge
... ... ...Planetary tectonics, see 96.12.Xy
... ... ...Pluton emplacement, see 91.55.Sn
... ... ...Rheology of the Earth, see 91.32.-m
91.50.-r Marine geology and geophysics
91.50.Ac Back-arc basin processes
91.50.Bd Continental shelf and slope processes
91.50.Cw Beach and coastal processes
91.50.Ey Seafloor morphology, geology, and geophysics (see also 92.10.Oc Benthic boundary layers, ocean bottom processes—in oceanography)
91.50.Ga Bathymetry, seafloor topology
91.50.Hc Gas and hydrate systems (see also 92.20.Uv—in oceanography)
91.50.Iv Marine magnetics and electromagnetics
91.50.Jc Marine sediments, turbidity currents—processes and transport (see also 91.65.Ti—in petrology; 91.67.Ty—in Geochemistry; 92.10.Wa and 92.20.Vn—in oceanography; 92.40.Gc—in hydrology; 91.80.Wx—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.50.Kx Gravity and isostasy
91.50.Ln Heat flow (benthic)
91.50.Nc Littoral processes
91.50.Ps Marine hydrogeology
91.50.Qr Micropaleontology
91.50.Rt Mid-ocean ridge processes (see also 91.30.Hc—in Seismology; 91.40.St—in Volcanology; 91.67.ff—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.50.Sn Ocean drilling (see also 93.85.Tf Oil prospecting, pipelines, and conduits)
91.50.Tb Oceanic hotspots and intra-plate volcanism (see also 91.40.Ta—in Volcanology; 91.67.fh—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.50.Uv Oceanic plateaus and fracture zone processes
91.50.Vx Ophiolites
91.50.Wy Subduction zone processes
91.50.Xz Submarine landslides
91.50.Yf Submergence instruments, ROV, AUV, Submersibles, and ocean observatories
91.55.-y Structural geology
91.55.Ax Mechanics, theory and modeling
91.55.Bc Continental neotectonics
91.55.De Diapir and diapirism
91.55.Fg Dynamics and mechanics of faulting (see also 91.32.Jk Friction of fault zones, rheology of)
91.55.Hj Folds and folding
91.55.Jk Fractures and faults (see also 91.50.Uv Oceanic plateaus and fracture zone processes)
91.55.Ln Kinematics of crustal and mantle deformation
91.55.Mb High strain deformation zones
91.55.Nc Local crustal structure; regional crustal structure
91.55.Pq Melanges
91.55.Qr Mesoscopic fabrics
91.55.Sn Pluton emplacement
91.55.Tt Role of fluids
91.55.Uv Remote sensing in structural geology
... ... ...Rheology of the Earth, see 91.32.-m
91.60.-x Physical properties of rocks and minerals (for rheological properties of geological materials, see 83.80.Nb)
91.60.Ba Elasticity, fracture, and flow
91.60.Dc Plasticity, diffusion, and creep
91.60.Ed Crystal structure and defects, microstructure
91.60.Fe Equations of state
91.60.Gf High-pressure behavior
91.60.Hg Phase changes
91.60.Ki Thermal properties
91.60.Lj Acoustic properties
91.60.Mk Optical properties
91.60.Np Permeability and porosity
91.60.Pn Magnetic and electrical properties (see also 91.25.F- Rock and mineral magnetism)
... ... ...Environmental magnetism, see 91.25.fd
91.60.Qr Wave attenuation
91.60.Tn Transport properties
91.62.+g Biogeosciences (see also 91.67.Uv Organic and biogenic geochemistry; 92.20.Jt Biology of the ocean; 91.80.Kc—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.65.-n Mineralogy and petrology
91.65.An Mineral and crystal chemistry
... ... ...Geochemical cycles, see 91.67.Nc
91.65.Cq Igneous petrology
91.65.Dt Isotopic composition (see also 91.67.Qr Radiogenic isotope geochemistry; 91.67.Rx Stable isotope geochemistry)
91.65.Ej Extrusive structures and rocks
... ... ...Low temperature geochemistry, see 91.67.Vf
91.65.Gk Intrusive structures and rocks
... ... ...Organic geochemistry, see 91.67.Uv
91.65.Jn Layered magma chambers
91.65.Kf Metamorphic petrology
91.65.Lc Pressure-temperature-time paths
91.65.My Fluid flow
... ... ...Trace elements, see 91.67.Pq
91.65.Pj Ultra-high pressure metamorphism
91.65.Qr Ultra-high temperature metamorphism
91.65.Rg Mineral occurrences and deposits
91.65.Sn Meteorite mineralogy and petrology
91.65.Ti Sedimentary petrology (see also 91.50.Jc—in marine geology; 91.67.Ty—in Geochemistry; 92.10.Wa and 92.20.Vn—in oceanography; 92.40.Gc—in hydrology; 91.80.Wx—in Geophysics Appendix)
... ... ...Major element composition, see 91.67.Pq
91.67.-y Geochemistry (see also 92.20.Cm Chemistry of the ocean; 92.40.Bc Chemistry of fresh water; 92.60.Ls Ion chemistry of the atmosphere; 91.62.Kt, 91.80.Kc, and 92.20.C- in Geophysics Appendix)
91.67.Bc Geochemical modeling
91.67.De Reactions and phase equilibria (see also 91.40.Qa—in Volcanology)
91.67.Fx Geochemical processes
91.67.Gy Chemical composition
91.67.Jk Geochemistry of hydrothermal systems (see also 91.40.Ge—in Volcanology; 92.05.Lf—in oceanography)
... ... ...Physics and chemistry of magma bodies, see 91.40.La
91.67.Nc Geochemical cycles (see also 92.20.Sg Biogeochemical cycles—in oceanography;—in meteorology; 92.30.Gh—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.67.Pq Major and trace element geochemistry (see also 92.20.Wx Trace elements—in chemical and biological oceanography)
91.67.Qr Radiogenic isotope geochemistry (see also 91.65.Dt Isotopic composition—in Mineralogy and petrology; 92.20.Td Radioactivity and radioisotopes—in oceanography)
91.67.Rx Stable isotope geochemistry (see also 91.65.Dt Isotopic composition—in Mineralogy and petrology)
91.67.St Fluid and melt inclusion geochemistry
91.67.Ty Sedimentary geochemistry (see also 91.50.Jc—in marine geology; 91.65.Ti—in Mineralogy and petrology; 92.10.Wa and 92.20.Vn—in oceanography; 92.40.Gc—in hydrology; 91.80.Wx—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.67.Uv Organic and biogenic geochemistry
91.67.Vf Low-temperature geochemistry
91.70.-c Information related to geologic time
91.70.Bf Cenozoic
91.70.Dh Mesozoic
91.70.Fj Paleozoic
91.70.Hm Precambrian
91.80.+d Geochronology (see also 92.30.Hj—in Geophysics Appendix)
91.90.+p Other topics in solid Earth physics (restricted to new topics in section 91)
92. Hydrospheric and atmospheric geophysics
92.05.-x General aspects of oceanography
92.05.Bc Analytical modeling and laboratory experiments
92.05.Df Climate and inter-annual variability (see also 92.60.Ry Climatology, climate change and variability—in meteorology; 92.70.Gt Climate dynamics—in Global change)
92.05.Ek Long term variability; Heinrich events
92.05.Fg Diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles
92.05.Hj Physical and chemical properties of seawater (salinity, density, temperature)
92.05.Jn Ocean energy extraction
92.05.Lf Hydrothermal systems (see also 91.40.Ge—in Volcanology; 91.67.Jk—in Geochemistry)
92.10.-c Physical oceanography
92.10.A- Circulation and currents
92.10.ab General circulation Deep water formation and circulation Thermohaline convection
92.10.ah Ocean currents; Eastern boundary currents, Western boundary currents
92.10.ak Eddies and mesoscale processes El Nino Southern Oscillation (see also 92.30.La—in Paleoceanography)
... ... ...Physical properties of seawater, see 92.05.Hj
... ... ...Capillary waves, see 92.10.hd—in Geophysics Appendix
92.10.Dh Deep ocean processes
92.10.Ei Coriolis effects
92.10.Fj Upper ocean and mixed layer processes
92.10.Hm Ocean waves and oscillations
92.10.Iv Ocean influence of Earth's rotation
... ... ...Seiches, see—in Geophysics Appendix
92.10.Kp Sea-air energy exchange processes (see also 92.60.Cc—in meteorology)
92.10.Lq Turbulence, diffusion, and mixing processes in oceanography
92.10.Ns Fine structure and microstructure in oceanography
92.10.Oc Benthic boundary layers, ocean bottom processes (see also 91.50.Ey Sea floor, morphology, geology, and geophysics—in marine geology)
92.10.Rw Sea ice (mechanics and air/sea/ice exchange processes)
92.10.Sx Coastal, estuarine, and near shore processes (see also 91.50.Cw Beach and coastal processes—in marine geology)
92.10.Ty Fronts and jets
92.10.Ua Overflows
92.10.Vz Underwater sound (see also 43.30.+m in acoustics; 43.30.-k in Acoustics Appendix)
92.10.Wa Sediment transport (see also 91.50.Jc—in marine geology; 91.65.Ti—in Mineralogy and petrology; 91.67.Ty—in Geochemistry; 92.20.Vn—in chemical oceanography; 92.40.Gc—in Hydrology; 91.80.Wx—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.10.Xc Ocean fog
92.10.Yb Hydrography (for ocean parameter estimation by acoustical methods, see 43.30.Pc—in Acoustics Appendix)
92.10.Zf Upwelling and convergences (see also 92.30.Vn—in Geophysics Appendix)
... ... ...Marine geology and geophysics, see 91.50.-r
92.20.-h Chemical and biological oceanography
92.20.Bk Aerosols (see also 92.60.Mt—in meteorology; and 92.30.Ef—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.20.Cm Chemistry of the ocean
... ... ...Photochemistry; photosynthesis, see—in Geophysics Appendix
... ... ...Ocean energy extraction, see 92.05.Jn
92.20.Hs Anoxic environments (see also 91.62.+g Biogeosciences; 91.62.De—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.20.Iv Benthic processes, sea-bottom processes (see also 91.50.Ey—in marine geology; 92.10.Oc—in oceanography; 92.40.Gc—in hydrology)
92.20.Jt Biology of the ocean (see also 91.62.+g Biogeosciences; Cryobiology—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.20.Ny Marine pollution
92.20.Ox Hypoxic environment (see also 91.62.De—in Geophysics Appendix)
... ... ...Bacteria, see 92.20.jb—in Geophysics Appendix
... ... ...Plankton, see 92.20.jf and 92.20.jh—in Geophysics Appendix
92.20.Sg Biogeochemical cycles (see also 91.67.Nc—in Geochemistry;—in meteorology; 92.30.Gh—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.20.Td Radioactivity and radioisotopes (see also 91.65.Dt Isotopic composition—in Mineralogy and petrology; 91.67.Qr Radiogenic isotope geochemistry)
92.20.Uv Gases in chemical oceanography (see also 91.50.Hc Gas and hydrate systems—in marine geology)
92.20.Vn Sedimentation (see also 91.50.Jc—in marine geology; 91.65.Ti—in petrology; 91.67.Ty—in Geochemistry; 92.10.Wa—in oceanography; 92.40.Gc—in hydrology; 91.80.Wx—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.20.Wx Trace elements (see also 91.67.Pq Major and trace element geochemistry)
92.20.Xy Carbon cycling (see also 91.62.La—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.30.+m Paleoceanography
92.40.-t Hydrology and glaciology; cryosphere (see also 92.70.Ha—in Global change)
92.40.Aa Anthropogenic effects (see also 92.30.De—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.40.Bc Chemistry of fresh water
92.40.Cy Modeling; general theory
92.40.De Drought
92.40.Ea Precipitation (see also 92.60.jf—in Geophysics Appendix)
... ... ...Rivers, runoff, and stream flow, see 92.40.qh and 92.40.qp—in Geophysics Appendix
92.40.Gc Erosion and sedimentation; sediment transport (see also 91.50.Jc—in marine geology; 91.65.Ti—in Mineralogy and petrology; 91.67.Ty—in Geochemistry; 92.10.Wa and 92.20.Vn—in oceanography; 91.80.Wx—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.40.Ha Debris flow and landslides
92.40.Iv Desertification
92.40.Je Evapotranspiration (see also 92.60.jc Evaporation—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.40.Kf Groundwater
92.40.Lg Soil moisture and temperature
... ... ...Limnology, see 92.40.qj—in Geophysics Appendix
92.40.Oj Eco-hydrology; plant ecology
92.40.Pb Geomorphology
92.40.Qk Surface water, water resources
... ... ...Water quality, see 92.40.kc and 92.40.qc—in Geophysics Appendix
... ... ...Snow, see 92.40.ed—in Geophysics Appendix
92.40.Vq Glaciology (see also 92.30.Mc—in Geophysics Appendix)
... ... ...Ice, see 92.40.vx—in Geophysics Appendix
92.40.We Hydrologic cycles and budgets
92.40.Xx Irrigation; dams
92.40.Yy Wetlands
92.40.Zg Hydrometeorology, hydroclimatology
92.60.-e Properties and dynamics of the atmosphere; meteorology (see also 92.40.Zg Hydrometeorology, hydroclimatology)
92.60.Aa Modeling and model calibration (see also 92.70.Np Global climate modeling)
92.60.Bh General circulation
92.60.Cc Ocean/atmosphere interactions, air/sea constituent fluxes (see also 92.10.Kp—in oceanography)
92.60.Fm Boundary layer structure and processes
92.60.Gn Winds and their effects
92.60.H- Atmospheric composition, structure, and properties
92.60.ha Exospheric composition and chemistry
92.60.hb Thermospheric composition and chemistry, energy deposition
92.60.hc Mesospheric composition, energy deposition, constituent transport and chemistry
92.60.hd Stratospheric composition and chemistry
92.60.hf Tropospheric composition and chemistry, constituent transport and chemistry
92.60.hg Constituent sources and sinks
92.60.hh Acoustic gravity waves, tides, and compressional waves Convection, turbulence, and diffusion (see also 92.30.Ef—in Geophysics Appendix) Geochemical cycles (see also 91.67.Nc—in Geochemistry; 92.20.Sg—in oceanography; 92.30.Gh—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.60.hv Pressure, density, and temperature
92.60.hw Airglow and aurorae (see also 94.20.Ac Auroral ionosphere; 94.30.Aa Auroral phenomena in magnetosphere)
92.60.hx Other upper atmospheric phenomena: red sprites; blue jets; atmospheric gamma ray and intense VHF emissions
92.60.Iv Paleoclimatology (see also 92.70.Gt Climate dynamics—in Global change)
92.60.Jq Water in the atmosphere
92.60.Kc Land/atmosphere interactions
92.60.Ls Ion chemistry of the atmosphere
92.60.Mt Particles and aerosols (see also 92.20.Bk—in oceanography; and 92.30.Ef—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.60.Nv Cloud physics and chemistry
92.60.Ox Tropical meteorology
92.60.Pw Atmospheric electricity, lightning
92.60.Qx Storms
92.60.Ry Climatology, climate change and variability (see also 92.70.Gt and 92.70.Kb—in Global change; 92.30.Bc—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.60.Sz Air quality and air pollution (see also 07.88.+y Instruments for environmental pollution measurements)
92.60.Ta Electromagnetic wave propagation
92.60.Uy Polar meteorology
92.60.Vb Radiative processes, solar radiation
92.60.Wc Weather analysis and prediction
92.60.Xg Stratosphere/troposphere interactions
92.60.Zc Volcanic effects
92.70.-j Global change
92.70.Aa Abrupt/rapid climate change
92.70.Bc Land/atmosphere interactions
92.70.Cp Atmosphere
92.70.Er Biogeochemical processes
92.70.Gt Climate dynamics (see also 92.60.Ry—in meteorology; 92.30.Bc—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.70.Ha Cryospheric change
92.70.Iv Geomorphology and weathering (see also 92.40.Gc Erosion and sedimentation; sediment transport; 92.40.Pb—in hydrology; 92.40.P- in Geophysics Appendix)
92.70.Jw Oceans, sea level change (see also 92.10.hp—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.70.Kb Regional climate change (see also 92.60.Ry—in meteorology; 92.30.Bc—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.70.Ly Water cycles
92.70.Mn Impacts of global change; global warming (see also 92.30.Np—in Geophysics Appendix)
92.70.Np Global climate modeling
92.70.Pq Earth system modeling
92.70.Qr Solar variability impact
92.70.St Land cover change
92.90.+x Other topics in hydrospheric and atmospheric geophysics (restricted to new topics in section 92)
93. Geophysical observations, instrumentation, and techniques
93.30.-w Information related to geographical regions
93.30.Bz Africa
93.30.Ca Antarctica
93.30.Db Asia
93.30.Fd Australia
93.30.Ge Europe
93.30.Hf North America
93.30.Jg South America
93.30.Kh Large islands (e.g., Greenland)
93.30.Li Arctic Ocean
93.30.Mj Atlantic Ocean
93.30.Nk Indian Ocean
93.30.Pm Pacific Ocean
93.30.Qn Southern Ocean
93.30.Rp Regional seas
93.30.Sq Polar regions
93.30.Tr Temperate regions
93.30.Vs Tropical regions
93.55.+z International organizations, national and international programs
... ... ...Data acquisition and storage, see 93.85.Bc
93.85.-q Instruments and techniques for geophysical research: Exploration geophysics (see also 91.50.Ga Bathymetry, seafloor topology; 91.50.Yf Submergence instruments, ROV, AUV, submersibles, and ocean observatories—in marine geology; 92.10.Yb Hydrography—in oceanography)
93.85.Bc Computational methods and data processing, data acquisition and storage
93.85.De Exploration of continental structures
93.85.Fg Downhole methods
93.85.Hj Gravity methods
93.85.Jk Magnetic and electrical methods
93.85.Ly Exploration of oceanic structures
93.85.Np Radioactivity methods
93.85.Pq Remote sensing in exploration geophysics (see also 91.40.Yt—in Volcanology; 91.55.Uv—in Structural geology)
93.85.Rt Seismic methods
93.85.Tf Oil prospecting, pipelines, and conduits (see also 91.50.Sn Ocean drilling)
93.90.+y Other topics in geophysical observations, instrumentation, and techniques (restricted to new topics in section 93)
94. Physics of the ionosphere and magnetosphere
94.05.-a Space plasma physics (see also 96.50.-e Interplanetary physics)
94.05.Bf Plasma interactions with dust and aerosols
94.05.Dd Radiation processes
94.05.Fg Solitons and solitary waves
94.05.Hk Spacecraft/atmosphere interactions
94.05.Jq Spacecraft sheaths, wakes, and charging
94.05.Lk Turbulence
94.05.Pt Wave/wave, wave/particle interactions
94.05.Rx Experimental techniques and laboratory studies (see also 52.72.+v—in physics of plasmas)
94.05.Sd Space weather
... ... ...Convection, diffusion, and turbulence, see 92.60.Hk
... ... ...Physics of the neutral atmosphere, see 92.60.-e
... ... ...Absorption and scattering of radiation, see 92.60.Ta and 92.60.Vb
... ... ...Acoustic gravity waves, tides, and compressional waves, see 92.60.hh
... ... ...Winds and their effects, see 92.60.Gn
... ... ...Cosmic dust, see 96.50.Dj and 98.38.Cp
94.20.-y Physics of the ionosphere (for ionospheres of the planets, see 96.12.ji and; for radiowave propagation, see 41.20.Jb—in electromagnetism)
94.20.Ac Auroral ionosphere (see also 92.60.hw Airglow and aurorae—in meteorology; 94.30.Aa Auroral phenomena in magnetosphere)
94.20.Bb Wave propagation (see also 94.30.Tz—in Physics of the magnetosphere)
94.20.Cf Ionospheric modeling and forecasting
94.20.D- Ionospheric structure, composition D region
94.20.dg E region F region Polar cap ionosphere
94.20.dl Topside region Mid-latitude ionosphere
94.20.dt Equatorial ionosphere
94.20.dv Ion chemistry and composition; ionization mechanisms
94.20.Fg Plasma temperature and density
... ... ...Plasmasphere, see
94.20.Qq Particle precipitation (see also 94.30.Ny—in Physics of the magnetosphere)
... ... ...Interactions between waves and particles, see 94.20.W-
94.20.Ss Electric fields; current system
94.20.Tt Ionospheric soundings; active experiments
94.20.Vv Ionospheric disturbances, irregularities, and storms
94.20.W- Ionospheric dynamics and interactions
94.20.wc Plasma motion; plasma convection; particle acceleration Plasma waves and instabilities
94.20.wg Ionosphere/atmospheric interactions
94.20.wh Ionosphere/magnetosphere interactions
94.20.wj Wave/particle interactions
94.20.wl Plasma interactions with dust and aerosols
94.20.wq Solar radiation and cosmic ray effects Electromagnetic wave propagation
94.20.Xa Meteor-trail physics
94.30.-d Physics of the magnetosphere
94.30.Aa Auroral phenomena in magnetosphere (see also 94.20.Ac Auroral ionosphere)
94.30.Bg Magnetospheric modeling and forecasting
94.30.C- Magnetospheric configuration and dynamics
94.30.cb Inner magnetosphere Outer magnetosphere Magnetospheric cusp Magnetopause
94.30.cj Magnetosheath Magnetotail
94.30.cp Magnetic reconnection
94.30.cq MHD waves, plasma waves, and instabilities
94.30.cs Plasma motion; plasma convection
94.30.ct Plasma sheet Plasmasphere Polar cap phenomena
94.30.Hn Energetic trapped particles
94.30.Kq Electric fields, field-aligned currents and current systems, and ring currents
94.30.Lr Magnetic storms, substorms
94.30.Ms Magnetic pulsations
94.30.Ny Energetic particle precipitation (see also 94.20.Qq—in Physics of the ionosphere)
94.30.Tz Electromagnetic wave propagation (see also 94.20.Bb—in Physics of the ionosphere)
94.30.Va Magnetosphere interactions
94.30.Xy Radiation belts
94.80.+g Instrumentation for space plasma physics, ionosphere, and magnetosphere
94.90.+m Other topics in space plasma physics, physics of the ionosphere and magnetosphere (restricted to new topics in section 94)
95. Fundamental astronomy and astrophysics; instrumentation, techniques, and astronomical observations
95.10.-a Fundamental astronomy
95.10.Ce Celestial mechanics (including n-body problems) (see also 45.50.Pk—in Classical mechanics of discrete systems)
... ... ...Dynamics and kinematics of stellar systems, see 98.10.+z
95.10.Eg Orbit determination and improvement
95.10.Fh Chaotic dynamics (see also 05.45.-a Nonlinear dynamics and chaos)
95.10.Gi Eclipses, transits, and occultations
95.10.Jk Astrometry and reference systems
95.10.Km Ephemerides, almanacs, and calendars
95.30.-k Fundamental aspects of astrophysics (see also section 26 Nuclear astrophysics)
95.30.Cq Elementary particle processes
95.30.Dr Atomic processes and interactions
95.30.Ft Molecular and chemical processes and interactions
95.30.Gv Radiation mechanisms; polarization
95.30.Jx Radiative transfer; scattering
95.30.Ky Atomic and molecular data, spectra, and spectral parameters (opacities, rotation constants, line identification, oscillator strengths, gf values, transition probabilities, etc.)
95.30.Lz Hydrodynamics
95.30.Qd Magnetohydrodynamics and plasmas (see also 52.30.Cv and 52.72.+v—in physics of plasmas)
95.30.Sf Relativity and gravitation (see also section 04 General relativity and gravitation; 98.80.Jk Mathematical and relativistic aspects of cosmology)
95.30.Tg Thermodynamic processes, conduction, convection, equations of state
95.30.Wi Dust processes (condensation, evaporation, sputtering, mantle growth, etc.)
95.35.+d Dark matter (stellar, interstellar, galactic, and cosmological) (see also 95.30.Cq Elementary particle processes; for brown dwarfs, see 97.20.Vs; for galactic halos, see 98.35.Gi or 98.62.Gq; for models of the early Universe, see 98.80.Cq)
95.36.+x Dark energy (see also 98.80.-k Cosmology)
95.40.+s Artificial Earth satellites (for lunar and planetary probes, see 95.55.Pe)
95.45.+i Observatories and site testing
95.55.-n Astronomical and space-research instrumentation (see also 94.80.+g Instrumentation for space plasma physics, ionosphere, and magnetosphere)
95.55.Aq Charge-coupled devices, image detectors, and IR detector arrays (see also 85.60.Gz Photodetectors)
95.55.Br Astrometric and interferometric instruments
95.55.Cs Ground-based ultraviolet, optical and infrared telescopes
95.55.Ev Solar instruments
95.55.Fw Space-based ultraviolet, optical, and infrared telescopes
95.55.Jz Radio telescopes and instrumentation; heterodyne receivers
95.55.Ka X- and γ-ray telescopes and instrumentation
95.55.Pe Lunar, planetary, and deep-space probes
95.55.Qf Photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic instrumentation
95.55.Rg Photoconductors and bolometers
95.55.Sh Auxiliary and recording instruments; clocks and frequency standards
95.55.Vj Neutrino, muon, pion, and other elementary particle detectors; cosmic ray detectors (see also 29.40.-n Radiation detectors—in Nuclear physics)
95.55.Ym Gravitational radiation detectors; mass spectrometers; and other instrumentation and techniques (see also 04.80.Nn Gravitational wave detectors and experiments in—General relativity and gravitation)
95.75.-z Observation and data reduction techniques; computer modeling and simulation
95.75.De Photography and photometry (including microlensing techniques)
95.75.Fg Spectroscopy and spectrophotometry
95.75.Hi Polarimetry
95.75.Kk Interferometry
95.75.Mn Image processing (including source extraction)
95.75.Pq Mathematical procedures and computer techniques
95.75.Qr Adaptive and segmented optics (see also 42.68.Wt Remote sensing; LIDAR and adaptive systems—in atmospheric optics)
95.75.Rs Remote observing techniques
95.75.Tv Digitization techniques
95.75.Wx Time series analysis, time variability
95.80.+p Astronomical catalogs, atlases, sky surveys, databases, retrieval systems, archives, etc.
95.85.-e Astronomical observations (additional primary heading(s) must be chosen with these entries to represent the astronomical objects and/or properties studied)
95.85.Bh Radio, microwave (>1 mm)
95.85.Fm Submillimeter (300 μm-1 mm)
95.85.Gn Far infrared (10-300 μm)
95.85.Hp Infrared (3-10 μm)
95.85.Jq Near infrared (0.75-3 μm)
95.85.Kr Visible (390-750 nm)
95.85.Ls Near ultraviolet (300-390 nm)
95.85.Mt Ultraviolet (10-300 nm)
95.85.Nv X-ray
95.85.Pw γ-ray
95.85.Ry Neutrino, muon, pion, and other elementary particles; cosmic rays
95.85.Sz Gravitational radiation, magnetic fields, and other observations
95.90.+v Historical astronomy and archaeoastronomy; and other topics in fundamental astronomy and astrophysics; instrumentation, techniques, and astronomical observations
96. Solar system; planetology
96.10.+i General; solar nebula; cosmogony
96.12.-a Planetology of solid surface planets (see also 96.15.-g Planetology of fluid planets; 96.30.Bc Comparative planetology)
96.12.Bc Origin and evolution
96.12.De Orbital and rotational dynamics
96.12.Fe Gravitational fields
96.12.Hg Magnetic field and magnetism
96.12.Jt Atmospheres
96.12.Kz Surfaces
96.12.Ma Composition
96.12.Pc Interiors
96.12.Qr Polar regions
96.12.St Heat flow
96.12.Uv Rings and dust
96.12.Wx Interactions with particles and fields
96.12.Xy Tectonics, volcanism
96.15.-g Planetology of fluid planets (see also 96.12.-a Planetology of solid surface planets; 96.30.Bc Comparative planetology)
96.15.Bc Origin and evolution
96.15.De Orbital and rotational dynamics
96.15.Ef Gravitational fields
96.15.Gh Magnetic field and magnetism
96.15.Hy Atmospheres
96.15.Kc Composition
96.15.Lb Surfaces
96.15.Nd Interiors
96.15.Pf Physical properties of materials
96.15.Qr Impact phenomena
96.15.St Tori and exospheres
96.15.Uv Rings and dust
96.15.Vx Interactions with particles and fields
96.15.Wx Tidal forces
96.15.Xy Polar regions
96.20.-n Moon
96.20.Br Origin and evolution
96.20.Dt Features, landmarks, mineralogy, and petrology
96.20.Jz Gravitational field, selenodesy, and magnetic fields
96.20.Ka Impacts, cratering
96.25.-f Planetology of comets and small bodies
96.25.Bd Origin and evolution
96.25.De Orbital and rotational dynamics
96.25.Fx Atmospheres
96.25.Hs Composition
96.25.Jz Ionospheres
96.25.Ln Magnetic fields and magnetism
96.25.Nc Gravitational fields
96.25.Pq Impact phenomena
96.25.Qr Interactions with solar wind plasma and fields
96.25.St Plasma and MHD instabilities
96.25.Tg Radiation and spectra
96.25.Vt Satellites
96.25.Xz Volcanism
96.30.-t Solar system objects
96.30.Bc Comparative planetology (see also 96.12.-a Planetology of solid surface planets; 96.15.-g Planetology of fluid planets)
96.30.Cw Comets (see also 96.25.-f Planetology of comets and small bodies)
96.30.Dz Mercury
96.30.Ea Venus
96.30.Gc Mars
96.30.Hf Martian satellites
96.30.Iz Dwarf Planets
96.30.Ja Dwarf planet satellites
96.30.Kf Jupiter
96.30.L- Jovian satellites Io
96.30.ld Europa
96.30.lf Ganymede
96.30.lh Callisto
96.30.Mh Saturn
96.30.N- Saturnian satellites
96.30.nd Titan
96.30.Pj Uranus
96.30.Qk Uranian satellites
96.30.Rm Neptune
96.30.Sn Pluto
96.30.Td Neptunian satellites
96.30.Up Plutonian satellites
96.30.Vb Dust, extraterrestrial materials
96.30.Wr Planetary rings
96.30.Xa Kuiper belt, trans-Neptunian objects
96.30.Ys Asteroids, meteoroids
96.30.Za Meteors, meteorites and tektites (see also 91.65.Sn Meteorite mineralogy and petrology; 94.20.Xa Meteor-trail physics;—in Geophysics Appendix)
... ... ...Planetary, asteroid, cometary, and satellite characteristics and properties, see 96.12.-a, 96.15.-g, and 96.25.-f
... ... ...Cosmic rays, see 96.50.S-
96.50.-e Interplanetary physics (see also 94.05.-a Space plasma physics)
96.50.Bh Interplanetary magnetic fields
96.50.Ci Solar wind plasma; sources of solar wind
96.50.Dj Interplanetary dust and gas
96.50.Ek Heliopause and solar wind termination
96.50.Fm Planetary bow shocks; interplanetary shocks
... ... ...Comets, see 96.30.Cw; 96.30C- (in Geophysics Appendix)
96.50.Hp Oort cloud
... ... ...Kuiper belt, see 96.30.Xa
... ... ...Meteors, meteoroids, and meteor streams, see 96.30.Za
... ... ...Meteorites, micrometeorites, and tektites, see 96.30.Za
96.50.Pw Particle acceleration
96.50.Qx Corotating streams
96.50.Ry Discontinuities
96.50.S- Cosmic rays (see also 94.20.wq Solar radiation and cosmic ray effects) Composition, energy spectra and interactions Extensive air showers
96.50.sf Interactions with terrestrial matter Interplanetary propagation and effects
96.50.Tf MHD waves; plasma waves, turbulence
96.50.Uv Ejecta, driver gases, and magnetic clouds
96.50.Vg Energetic particles
96.50.Wx Solar cycle variations
96.50.Xy Heliosphere/interstellar medium interactions
96.50.Ya Pickup ions
96.50.Zc Neutral particles
96.55.+z Astrobiology and astrochemistry of the Solar system and interplanetary space (see also 91.62.Fc—in Geophysics Appendix)
96.60.-j Solar physics
96.60.Bn Diameter, rotation, and mass
96.60.Fs Composition
96.60.Hv Electric and magnetic fields, solar magnetism
96.60.Iv Magnetic reconnection
96.60.Jw Solar interior
96.60.Ly Helioseismology, pulsations, and shock waves
96.60.Mz Photosphere
96.60.Na Chromosphere
96.60.P- Corona
96.60.pc Coronal holes Coronal loops, streamers Coronal mass ejection
96.60.Q- Solar activity (see also 92.70.Qr—in Global change)
96.60.qd Sun spots, solar cycles
96.60.qe Flares
96.60.qf Prominence eruptions
96.60.Tf Solar electromagnetic emission
96.60.Ub Solar irradiance
96.60.Vg Particle emission, solar wind (see also 94.30.vf—in Geophysics Appendix; 26.65.+t Solar neutrinos in nuclear astrophysics)
96.60.Xy Transition region
96.90.+c Other topics on the Solar system and planetology (restricted to new topics in section 96)
97. Stars (for relativistic stars, see 04.40.Dg in general relativity and gravitation)
97.10.-q Stellar characteristics and properties (see also section 26 Nuclear astrophysics)
97.10.Bt Star formation
97.10.Cv Stellar structure, interiors, evolution, nucleosynthesis, ages
97.10.Ex Stellar atmospheres (photospheres, chromospheres, coronae, magnetospheres); radiative transfer; opacity and line formation
97.10.Fy Circumstellar shells, clouds, and expanding envelopes; circumstellar masers (for interstellar masers, see 98.38.Er or 98.58.Ec)
97.10.Gz Accretion and accretion disks
97.10.Jb Stellar activity
97.10.Kc Stellar rotation
97.10.Ld Magnetic and electric fields; polarization of starlight
97.10.Me Mass loss and stellar winds
97.10.Nf Masses
97.10.Pg Radii
97.10.Qh Surface features (including starspots)
97.10.Ri Luminosities; magnitudes; effective temperatures, colors, and spectral classification
97.10.Sj Pulsations, oscillations, and stellar seismology
97.10.Tk Abundances, chemical composition
97.10.Vm Distances, parallaxes
97.10.Wn Proper motions and radial velocities (line-of-sight velocities); space motions (see also 95.10.Jk Astrometry and reference systems)
97.10.Xq Luminosity and mass functions
97.10.Yp Star counts, distribution, and statistics
97.10.Zr Hertzsprung-Russell, color-magnitude, and color-color diagrams
97.20.-w Normal stars (by class): general or individual
97.20.Ec Main-sequence: early-type stars (O and B)
97.20.Ge Main-sequence: intermediate-type stars (A and F)
97.20.Jg Main-sequence: late-type stars (G, K, and M)
97.20.Li Giant and subgiant stars
97.20.Pm Supergiant stars
97.20.Rp Faint blue stars (including blue stragglers), white dwarfs, degenerate stars, nuclei of planetary nebulae (for planetary nebulae, see 98.38.Ly or 98.58.Li)
97.20.Tr Population II stars (horizontal branch, metal poor, etc.)
97.20.Vs Low luminosity stars, subdwarfs, and brown dwarfs
97.20.Wt Population III stars
97.21.+a Pre-main sequence objects, young stellar objects (YSO's) and protostars (T Tauri stars, Orion population, Herbig-Haro objects, Bok globules, bipolar outflows, cometary nebulae, etc.) (see also 98.38.Fs and 98.58.Fd Jets, outflows and bipolar flows—in the Milky Way and external galaxies respectively)
97.30.-b Variable and peculiar stars (including novae)
97.30.Dg Low-amplitude blue variables (alpha Cygni, beta Cephei, delta Scuti, delta Delphini, delta Canis Majoris, SX Phoenicius, etc.)
97.30.Eh Emission-line stars (Of, Be, Luminous Blue Variables, Wolf-Rayet, etc.)
97.30.Fi Chemically peculiar stars (Ap, Am, etc.)
97.30.Gj Cepheids (delta Cephei, W Virginis)
97.30.Hk Carbon stars, S stars, and related types (C, S, R, and N)
97.30.Jm Long-period variables (Miras) and semiregulars
97.30.Kn RR Lyrae stars; RV Tauri and PV Telescopii variables
97.30.Nr Flare stars (UV Ceti, RS Canum Venaticorum, FU Orionis, R Coronae Borealis variables, etc.)
97.30.Qt Novae, dwarf novae, recurrent novae, and other cataclysmic (eruptive) variables (see also 97.80.Gm, Jp Cataclysmic binaries and X-ray binaries)
97.30.Sw Unusual and peculiar variables
97.60.-s Late stages of stellar evolution (including black holes)
97.60.Bw Supernovae (see also 26.30.-k Nucleosynthesis in novae, supernovae, and other explosive stars; for nuclear physics aspects of supernovae evolution, see 26.50.+x)
97.60.Gb Pulsars
97.60.Jd Neutron stars (see also 26.60.-c Nuclear matter aspects of neutron stars in—Nuclear physics)
97.60.Lf Black holes (see also 04.70.-s Physics of black holes in—General relativity and gravitation; for galactic black holes, see 98.35.Jk and 98.62.Js)
97.80.-d Binary and multiple stars
97.80.Af Astrometric and interferometric binaries
97.80.Di Visual binaries
97.80.Fk Spectroscopic binaries; close binaries
97.80.Gm Cataclysmic binaries (novae, dwarf novae, recurrent novae, and nova-like objects); symbiotic stars (see also 97.30.Qt Novae)
97.80.Hn Eclipsing binaries
97.80.Jp X-ray binaries (see also 98.70.Qy X-ray sources and 97.60.Gb Pulsars)
97.80.Kq Multiple stars
97.82.-j Extrasolar planetary systems
97.82.Cp Photometric and spectroscopic detection; coronographic detection; interferometric detection
97.82.Fs Substellar companions; planets
97.82.Jw Infrared excess; debris disks; protoplanetary disks; exo-zodiacal dust
97.90.+j Other topics on stars (restricted to new topics in section 97)
98. Stellar systems; interstellar medium; galactic and extragalactic objects and systems; the Universe
98.10.+z Stellar dynamics and kinematics
98.20.-d Stellar clusters and associations
98.20.Af Associations of stars (OB, T, R) in the Milky Way
98.20.Bg Associations of stars (OB, T, R) in external galaxies
98.20.Di Open clusters in the Milky Way
98.20.Fk Open clusters in external galaxies
98.20.Gm Globular clusters in the Milky Way
98.20.Jp Globular clusters in external galaxies
98.35.-a Characteristics and properties of the Milky Way galaxy
98.35.Ac Origin, formation, evolution, age, and star formation
98.35.Bd Chemical composition and chemical evolution
98.35.Ce Mass and mass distribution
98.35.Df Kinematics, dynamics, and rotation
98.35.Eg Electric and magnetic fields
98.35.Gi Galactic halo
98.35.Hj Spiral arms and galactic disk
98.35.Jk Galactic center, bar, circumnuclear matter, and bulge (including black hole and distance measurements)
98.35.Ln Stellar content and populations; morphology and overall structure
98.35.Mp Infall and accretion
98.35.Nq Galactic winds and fountains
98.35.Pr Solar neighborhood
98.38.-j Interstellar medium (ISM) and nebulae in Milky Way
98.38.Am Physical properties (abundances, electron density, magnetic fields, scintillation, scattering, kinematics, dynamics, turbulence, etc.)
98.38.Bn Atomic, molecular, chemical, and grain processes
98.38.Cp Interstellar dust grains; diffuse emission; infrared cirrus
98.38.Dq Molecular clouds, H2 clouds, dense clouds, and dark clouds
98.38.Er Interstellar masers (for circumstellar masers, see 97.10.Fy)
98.38.Fs Jets, outflows, and bipolar flows (for pre-main sequence objects, see 97.21.+a)
98.38.Gt H I regions and 21-cm lines; diffuse, translucent, and high-velocity clouds
98.38.Hv H II regions; emission and reflection nebulae
98.38.Jw Infrared emission
98.38.Kx Intercloud medium (ICM); hot and highly ionized gas; bubbles
98.38.Ly Planetary nebulae (for nuclei of planetary nebulae, see also 97.20.Rp)
98.38.Mz Supernova remnants
98.52.-b Normal galaxies; extragalactic objects and systems (by type)
98.52.Cf Classification and classification systems
98.52.Eh Elliptical galaxies
98.52.Lp Lenticular (S0) galaxies
98.52.Nr Spiral galaxies
98.52.Sw Irregular and morphologically peculiar galaxies
98.52.Wz Dwarf galaxies (elliptical, irregular, and spheroidal)
98.54.-h Quasars; active or peculiar galaxies, objects, and systems
98.54.Aj Quasars (for quasar absorption and emission-line systems; Lyman forest, see 98.62.Ra)
98.54.Cm Active and peculiar galaxies and related systems (including BL Lacertae objects, blazars, Seyfert galaxies, Markarian galaxies, and active galactic nuclei)
98.54.Ep Starburst galaxies and infrared excess galaxies
98.54.Gr Radio galaxies
98.54.Kt Protogalaxies; primordial galaxies
98.56.-p Local group; Magellanic Clouds
98.56.Ew Elliptical galaxies
98.56.Ne Spiral galaxies (M31 and M33)
98.56.Si Magellanic Clouds and other irregular galaxies
98.56.Tj Magellanic stream
98.56.Wm Dwarf galaxies (elliptical, irregular, and spheroidal)
98.58.-w Interstellar medium (ISM) and nebulae in external galaxies
98.58.Ay Physical properties (abundances, electron density, magnetic fields, scintillation, scattering, kinematics, dynamics, turbulence, etc.)
98.58.Bz Atomic, molecular, chemical, and grain processes
98.58.Ca Interstellar dust grains; diffuse emission; infrared cirrus
98.58.Db Molecular clouds, H2 clouds, dense clouds, and dark clouds
98.58.Ec Interstellar masers (for circumstellar masers, see 97.10.Fy)
98.58.Fd Jets, outflows and bipolar flows (for pre-main sequence objects, see 97.21.+a)
98.58.Ge H I regions and 21-cm lines; diffuse, translucent, and high-velocity clouds
98.58.Hf H II regions; emission and reflection nebulae
98.58.Jg Infrared emission
98.58.Kh Intercloud medium (ICM); hot and highly ionized gas; bubbles
98.58.Li Planetary nebulae (for nuclei of planetary nebulae, see also 97.20.Rp)
98.58.Mj Supernova remnants
98.58.Nk Tidal tails; H I shells
98.62.-g Characteristics and properties of external galaxies and extragalactic objects (for the Milky Way, see 98.35.-a)
98.62.Ai Origin, formation, evolution, age, and star formation
98.62.Bj Chemical composition and chemical evolution
98.62.Ck Masses and mass distribution
98.62.Dm Kinematics, dynamics, and rotation
98.62.En Electric and magnetic fields
98.62.Gq Galactic halos
98.62.Hr Spiral arms and bars; galactic disks
98.62.Js Galactic nuclei (including black holes), circumnuclear matter, and bulges
98.62.Lv Stellar content and populations; radii; morphology and overall structure
98.62.Mw Infall, accretion, and accretion disks
98.62.Nx Jets and bursts; galactic winds and fountains
98.62.Py Distances, redshifts, radial velocities; spatial distribution of galaxies (for observational cosmology, see 98.80.Es)
98.62.Qz Magnitudes and colors; luminosities
98.62.Ra Intergalactic matter; quasar absorption and emission-line systems; Lyman forest (for quasars, see 98.54.Aj; for intracluster matter, see 98.65.Hb)
98.62.Sb Gravitational lenses and luminous arcs (see also 95.30.Sf Relativity and gravitation—in fundamental aspects of astrophysics and section 04 General relativity and gravitation)
98.62.Tc Astrometry; identification
98.62.Ve Statistical and correlative studies of properties (luminosity and mass functions; mass-to-light ratio; Tully-Fisher relation, etc.)
98.65.-r Galaxy groups, clusters, and superclusters; large scale structure of the Universe
98.65.At Interacting galaxies; galaxy pairs, and triples
98.65.Bv Small and compact galaxy groups
98.65.Cw Galaxy clusters
98.65.Dx Superclusters; large-scale structure of the Universe (including voids, pancakes, great wall, etc.)
98.65.Fz Galaxy mergers, collisions, and tidal interactions
98.65.Hb Intracluster matter; cooling flows
98.70.-f Unidentified sources of radiation outside the Solar System
98.70.Dk Radio sources
... ... ...Quasars, see 98.54.Aj
98.70.Lt IR sources (for IR sources in interstellar medium, see 98.38.Jw and/or 98.58.Jg)
98.70.Qy X-ray sources; X-ray bursts (see also 97.30.Qt Novae, dwarf novae, recurrent novae, and other cataclysmic (eruptive) variables; 97.80.Jp X-ray binaries)
98.70.Rz γ-ray sources; γ-ray bursts
98.70.Sa Cosmic rays (including sources, origin, acceleration, and interactions) (see also 26.40.+r Cosmic ray nucleosynthesis—in Nuclear astrophysics)
98.70.Vc Background radiations
98.80.-k Cosmology (see also section 04 General relativity and gravitation; for origin and evolution of galaxies, see 98.62.Ai; for elementary particle and nuclear processes, see 95.30.Cq; for dark matter, see 95.35.+d; for dark energy, see 95.36.+x; for superclusters and large-scale structure of the Universe, see 98.65.Dx)
98.80.Bp Origin and formation of the Universe
98.80.Cq Particle-theory and field-theory models of the early Universe (including cosmic pancakes, cosmic strings, chaotic phenomena, inflationary universe, etc.)
98.80.Es Observational cosmology (including Hubble constant, distance scale, cosmological constant, early Universe, etc)
98.80.Ft Origin, formation, and abundances of the elements (see also 26.35.+c Big Bang nucleosynthesis—in Nuclear astrophysics)
98.80.Jk Mathematical and relativistic aspects of cosmology
98.80.Qc Quantum cosmology (see also 04.60.-m Quantum gravity—in General relativity and gravitation)
98.90.+s Other topics on stellar systems; interstellar medium; galactic and extragalactic objects and systems; the Universe (restricted to new topics in section 98)
99.10.-x Errata and other corrections
99.10.Cd Errata
99.10.Fg Publisher's note
99.10.Jk Corrected article
99.10.Ln Retraction
99.10.Np Editorial note
99.10.Qr Addenda