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Top Cited Articles of All Time (1995 edition)

The 50 most highly cited papers of All Time (1995 edition)

Keep in mind that citation counts can never be exact, there is something like a 5% error in most of these numbers. Please do not fret about number 32 versus 33, as this is often not a statistically significant difference. Remember the detailed warning about the accuracy of these counts.

Also note that the counts shown, and used in the rankings, are the counts as of Wed 21-Mar-2007. Further, the counts shown by the ranking are only the cites satisfying the criteria for that list. Actual citation numbers in the database may change as corrections are made and papers are added, the links will take you to the updated numbers. The lists, however, will not update.

  1. 8943
    Review of Particle Physics
    By Particle Data Group (W.-M. Yao et al.).
    Citations are counted for all versions of the RPP, most recent version is:
    Published in:J.Phys.G33:1-1232,2006
    [676 Total citations in HEP]
    [27783 Total Citations to all copies of RPP in HEP]
  2. 4970
    A Model of Leptons
    By Steven Weinberg (MIT, LNS).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.19:1264-1266,1967
    [6221 Total citations in HEP]
  3. 2892
    Weak Interactions with Lepton-Hadron Symmetry
    By S.L. Glashow, J. Iliopoulos, L. Maiani (Harvard U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D2:1285-1292,1970
    [3526 Total citations in HEP]
  4. 2796
    CP Violation in the Renormalizable Theory of Weak Interaction
    By Makoto Kobayashi, Toshihide Maskawa (Kyoto U.).
    Published in:Prog.Theor.Phys.49:652-657,1973
    [4988 Total citations in HEP]
  5. 2370
    Partial Symmetries of Weak Interactions
    By S.L. Glashow (Copenhagen U.).
    Published in:Nucl.Phys.22:579-588,1961
    [3298 Total citations in HEP]
  6. 2150
    Unity of All Elementary Particle Forces
    By H. Georgi, S.L. Glashow (Harvard U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.32:438-441,1974
    [2871 Total citations in HEP]
  7. 2066
    Confinement of Quarks
    By Kenneth G. Wilson (Cornell U., LNS).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D10:2445-2459,1974
    [2930 Total citations in HEP]
  8. 1849
    Asymptotic Freedom in Parton Language
    By Guido Altarelli (Ecole Normale Superieure), G. Parisi (IHES, Bures-sur-Yvette).
    Published in:Nucl.Phys.B126:298,1977
    [3488 Total citations in HEP]
  9. 1741
    Lepton Number as the Fourth Color
    By Jogesh C. Pati (Maryland U.), Abdus Salam (ICTP, Trieste & Imperial Coll., London).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D10:275-289,1974, Erratum-ibid.D11:703-703,1975
    [2651 Total citations in HEP]
  10. 1727
    QCD and Resonance Physics. Sum Rules
    By Mikhail A. Shifman, A.I. Vainshtein, Valentin I. Zakharov (Moscow, ITEP).
    Published in:Nucl.Phys.B147:385-447,1979
    [3185 Total citations in HEP]
  11. 1664
    Radiative Corrections as the Origin of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking
    By Sidney R. Coleman, E. Weinberg (Harvard U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D7:1888-1910,1973
    [2341 Total citations in HEP]
  12. 1661
    Computation of the Quantum Effects Due to a Four-Dimensional Pseudoparticle
    By Gerard 't Hooft (Harvard U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D14:3432-3450,1976, Erratum-ibid.D18:2199,1978
    [2687 Total citations in HEP]
  13. 1643
    Axial vector vertex in spinor electrodynamics
    By Stephen L. Adler (Princeton U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.177:2426-2438,1969
    [2268 Total citations in HEP]
  14. 1626
    Ultraviolet Behavior of Nonabelian Gauge Theories
    By D.J. Gross, Frank Wilczek (Princeton U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.30:1343-1346,1973
    [2266 Total citations in HEP]
  15. 1615
    Infinite Conformal Symmetry in Two-Dimensional Quantum Field Theory
    By A.A. Belavin, Alexander M. Polyakov (Landau Inst.), A.B. Zamolodchikov (CERN & Landau Inst.).
    Published in:Nucl.Phys.B241:333-380,1984
    [2262 Total citations in HEP]
  16. 1613
    Reliable Perturbative Results for Strong Interactions?
    By H.David Politzer (Harvard U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.30:1346-1349,1973
    [2279 Total citations in HEP]
  17. 1591
    Dynamical Model of Elementary Particles Based on an Analogy with Superconductivity. 1.
    By Yoichiro Nambu, G. Jona-Lasinio (Chicago U., EFI).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.122:345-358,1961
    [2763 Total citations in HEP]
  18. 1508
    Symmetry Breaking Through Bell-Jackiw Anomalies
    By Gerard 't Hooft (Harvard U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.37:8-11,1976
    [2314 Total citations in HEP]
  19. 1503
    Vacuum Configurations for Superstrings
    By P. Candelas (Texas U. & Santa Barbara, KITP), Gary T. Horowitz (UC, Santa Barbara), Andrew Strominger (Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study), Edward Witten (Princeton U.).
    Published in:Nucl.Phys.B258:46-74,1985
    [1926 Total citations in HEP]
  20. 1478
    Super Collider Physics
    By E. Eichten (Fermilab), I. Hinchliffe (LBL, Berkeley), Kenneth D. Lane (Ohio State U.), C. Quigg (Fermilab).
    Published in:Rev.Mod.Phys.56:579-707,1984, Addendum-ibid.58:1065-1073,1986
    [1780 Total citations in HEP]
  21. 1457
    Quantum Geometry of Bosonic Strings
    By Alexander M. Polyakov (Landau Inst.).
    Published in:Phys.Lett.B103:207-210,1981
    [1916 Total citations in HEP]
  22. 1419
    The Inflationary Universe: A Possible Solution to the Horizon and Flatness Problems
    By Alan H. Guth (SLAC).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D23:347-356,1981
    [2830 Total citations in HEP]
  23. 1393
    Regularization and Renormalization of Gauge Fields
    By Gerard 't Hooft, M.J.G. Veltman (Utrecht U.).
    Published in:Nucl.Phys.B44:189-213,1972
    [2308 Total citations in HEP]
  24. 1388
    Hadron Masses in a Gauge Theory
    By A. De Rujula, Howard Georgi, S.L. Glashow (Harvard U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D12:147-162,1975
    [1796 Total citations in HEP]
  25. 1343
    A PCAC puzzle: pi0 --> gamma gamma in the sigma model
    By J.S. Bell, R. Jackiw (CERN).
    Published in:Nuovo Cim.A60:47-61,1969
    [1919 Total citations in HEP]
  26. 1338
    Pseudoparticle Solutions of the Yang-Mills Equations
    By A.A. Belavin, Alexander M. Polyakov, A.S. Shvarts, Yu.S. Tyupkin (Landau Inst.).
    Published in:Phys.Lett.B59:85-87,1975
    [1940 Total citations in HEP]
  27. 1309
    Supersymmetry, Supergravity and Particle Physics
    By Hans Peter Nilles (Geneva U. & CERN).
    Published in:Phys.Rept.110:1,1984
    [3088 Total citations in HEP]
  28. 1300
    Experimental Observation of a Heavy Particle J
    By E598 Collaboration (J.J. Aubert et al.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.33:1404-1406,1974
    [1507 Total citations in HEP]
  29. 1248
    The Search for Supersymmetry: Probing Physics Beyond the Standard Model
    By Howard E. Haber (UC, Santa Cruz & SLAC), Gordon L. Kane (Michigan U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rept.117:75,1985
    [3025 Total citations in HEP]
  30. 1239
    QCD and Resonance Physics: Applications
    By Mikhail A. Shifman, A.I. Vainshtein, Valentin I. Zakharov (Moscow, ITEP).
    Published in:Nucl.Phys.B147:448-518,1979
    [1993 Total citations in HEP]
  31. 1228
    Heterotic String Theory. 1. The Free Heterotic String
    By David J. Gross, Jeffrey A. Harvey, Emil J. Martinec, Ryan Rohm (Princeton U.).
    Published in:Nucl.Phys.B256:253,1985
    [1406 Total citations in HEP]
  32. 1218
    A New Extended Model of Hadrons
    By A. Chodos, R.L. Jaffe, K. Johnson, Charles B. Thorn, V.F. Weisskopf (MIT, LNS).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D9:3471-3495,1974
    [1642 Total citations in HEP]
  33. 1214
    Discovery of a Narrow Resonance in e+ e- Annihilation
    By SLAC-SP-017 Collaboration (J.E. Augustin et al.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.33:1406-1408,1974
    [1418 Total citations in HEP]
  34. 1206
    On gauge invariance and vacuum polarization
    By Julian S. Schwinger (Harvard U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.82:664-679,1951
    [2346 Total citations in HEP]
  35. 1193
    Consequences of anomalous Ward identities
    By J. Wess (CERN & Karlsruhe U.), B. Zumino (CERN).
    Published in:Phys.Lett.B37:95,1971
    [1713 Total citations in HEP]
  36. 1189
    Magnetic Monopoles in Unified Gauge Theories
    By Gerard 't Hooft (CERN).
    Published in:Nucl.Phys.B79:276-284,1974
    [1845 Total citations in HEP]
  37. 1179
    A Planar Diagram Theory for Strong Interactions
    By Gerard 't Hooft (CERN).
    Published in:Nucl.Phys.B72:461,1974
    [2512 Total citations in HEP]
  38. 1153
    Symmetry Behavior at Finite Temperature
    By L. Dolan, R. Jackiw (MIT, LNS).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D9:3320-3341,1974
    [1694 Total citations in HEP]
  39. 1147
    Global Aspects of Current Algebra
    By Edward Witten (Princeton U.).
    Published in:Nucl.Phys.B223:422-432,1983
    [1651 Total citations in HEP]
  40. 1136
    A Parametrization of the Properties of Quark Jets
    By R.D. Field, R.P. Feynman (Caltech).
    Published in:Nucl.Phys.B136:1,1978
    [1301 Total citations in HEP]
  41. 1133
    Quark Masses
    By J. Gasser, H. Leutwyler (Bern U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rept.87:77-169,1982
    [1596 Total citations in HEP]
  42. 1133
    Anomaly Cancellation in Supersymmetric D=10 Gauge Theory and Superstring Theory
    By Michael B. Green (Queen Mary, U. of London & Caltech), John H. Schwarz (Caltech).
    Published in:Phys.Lett.B149:117-122,1984
    [1827 Total citations in HEP]
  43. 1124
    Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories. 1
    By D.J. Gross (Fermilab & Princeton U.), Frank Wilczek (Princeton U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D8:3633-3652,1973
    [1433 Total citations in HEP]
  44. 1110
    Hierarchy of Interactions in Unified Gauge Theories
    By H. Georgi, Helen R. Quinn, Steven Weinberg (Harvard U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.33:451-454,1974
    [1378 Total citations in HEP]
  45. 1080
    CP Conservation in the Presence of Instantons
    By R.D. Peccei, Helen R. Quinn (Stanford U., ITP).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.38:1440-1443,1977
    [1709 Total citations in HEP]
  46. 1074
    Parton Fragmentation and String Dynamics
    By Bo Andersson, G. Gustafson, G. Ingelman, T. Sjostrand (Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.).
    Published in:Phys.Rept.97:31,1983
    [1720 Total citations in HEP]
  47. 1074
    The Heterotic String
    By David J. Gross, Jeffrey A. Harvey, Emil J. Martinec, Ryan Rohm (Princeton U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.Lett.54:502-505,1985
    [1271 Total citations in HEP]
  48. 1065
    Neutrino Oscillations in Matter
    By L. Wolfenstein (Carnegie Mellon U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D17:2369,1978
    [2807 Total citations in HEP]
  49. 1059
    Q**2 Dependent Parametrizations of Parton Distribution Functions
    By D.W. Duke, J.F. Owens (Florida State U.).
    Published in:Phys.Rev.D30:49-54,1984
    [1144 Total citations in HEP]
  50. 1050
    Nonabelian Bosonization in Two-Dimensions
    By Edward Witten (Princeton U.).
    Published in:Commun.Math.Phys.92:455-472,1984
    [1504 Total citations in HEP]