Top Cited Articles of All Time (2009 edition)

The 40 most highly cited papers of All Time (2009 edition)

Keep in mind that citation counts can never be exact, there is something like a 5% error in most of these numbers. Please do not fret about number 32 versus 33, as this is often not a statistically significant difference. More information about citations in INSPIRE can be found here.

Also note that the counts shown, and used in the rankings, are the counts as of 2016-12-31. Further, the counts shown by the ranking are only the cites satisfying the criteria for that list. Actual citation numbers in the database may change as corrections are made and papers are added, the links will take you to the updated numbers.

Annual and All-time 2009 editions

36576 core citations up to the end of 2009PDG RPP has been unified. The most recent is shown.
Review of Particle Physics
Particle Data Group (K.A. Olive (Minnesota U.) et al.). 2014. 1676 pp.
Published in Chin.Phys. C38 (2014) 090001
DOI: 10.1088/1674-1137/38/9/090001

  1. 7253 core citations up to the end of 2009
    A Model of Leptons
    Steven Weinberg (MIT, LNS). Nov 1967. 3 pp.
    Published in Phys.Rev.Lett. 19 (1967) 1264-1266
    DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.19.1264

  2. 6672 core citations up to the end of 2009
    The Large N limit of superconformal field theories and supergravity
    Juan Martin Maldacena (Harvard U.). Nov 1997. 21 pp.
    Published in Int.J.Theor.Phys. 38 (1999) 1113-1133, Adv.Theor.Math.Phys. 2 (1998) 231-252
    HUTP-97-A097, HUTP-98-A097
    DOI: 10.1023/A:1026654312961
    e-Print: hep-th/9711200 | PDF

  3. 6120 core citations up to the end of 2009
  4. 4554 core citations up to the end of 2009
    A Large mass hierarchy from a small extra dimension
    Lisa Randall (Princeton U. & MIT, LNS), Raman Sundrum (Boston U.). May 1999. 9 pp.
    Published in Phys.Rev.Lett. 83 (1999) 3370-3373
    MIT-CTP-2860, PUPT-1860, BUHEP-99-9
    DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.3370
    e-Print: hep-ph/9905221 | PDF

  5. 4498 core citations up to the end of 2009
  6. 4232 core citations up to the end of 2009
  7. 4163 core citations up to the end of 2009
  8. 4031 core citations up to the end of 2009
  9. 3981 core citations up to the end of 2009
  10. 3950 core citations up to the end of 2009
    An Alternative to compactification
    Lisa Randall (Princeton U. & MIT, LNS), Raman Sundrum (Boston U.). Jun 1999. 10 pp.
    Published in Phys.Rev.Lett. 83 (1999) 4690-4693
    MIT-CTP-2874, PUPT-1867, BUHEP-99-13
    DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.4690
    e-Print: hep-th/9906064 | PDF

  11. 3826 core citations up to the end of 2009
  12. 3732 core citations up to the end of 2009
  13. 3662 core citations up to the end of 2009
  14. 3567 core citations up to the end of 2009
  15. 3320 core citations up to the end of 2009
    Particle Creation by Black Holes
    S.W. Hawking (Cambridge U.). Aug 1975. 22 pp.
    Published in Commun.Math.Phys. 43 (1975) 199-220, Erratum: Commun.Math.Phys. 46 (1976) 206
    DOI: 10.1007/BF02345020

  16. 3319 core citations up to the end of 2009
  17. 3310 core citations up to the end of 2009
    Confinement of Quarks
    Kenneth G. Wilson (Cornell U., LNS). Feb 1974. 47 pp.
    Published in Phys.Rev. D10 (1974) 2445-2459
    CLNS-262
    DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.10.2445
    Conference: C81-06-01, p.45-59 Proceedings Contributions

  18. 3310 core citations up to the end of 2009
    Evidence for oscillation of atmospheric neutrinos
    Super-Kamiokande Collaboration (Y. Fukuda (Tokyo U., ICRR) et al.). Jul 1998. 9 pp.
    Published in Phys.Rev.Lett. 81 (1998) 1562-1567
    BU-98-17, ICRR-REPORT-422-98-18, UCI-98-8, KEK-PREPRINT-98-95, LSU-HEPA-5-98, UMD-98-003, SBHEP-98-5, TKU-PAP-98-06, TIT-HPE-98-09
    DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.1562
    e-Print: hep-ex/9807003 | PDF

  19. 3302 core citations up to the end of 2009
  20. 3268 core citations up to the end of 2009
  21. 3220 core citations up to the end of 2009
  22. 3170 core citations up to the end of 2009
  23. 3150 core citations up to the end of 2009
  24. 3046 core citations up to the end of 2009
  25. 3029 core citations up to the end of 2009
  26. 3028 core citations up to the end of 2009
  27. 3025 core citations up to the end of 2009
    Computation of the Quantum Effects Due to a Four-Dimensional Pseudoparticle
    Gerard 't Hooft (Harvard U.). Jun 1976. 59 pp.
    Published in Phys.Rev. D14 (1976) 3432-3450, Erratum: Phys.Rev. D18 (1978) 2199
    PRINT-76-0551 (HARVARD)
    DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.18.2199.3, 10.1103/PhysRevD.14.3432

  28. 3005 core citations up to the end of 2009
  29. 2995 core citations up to the end of 2009
  30. 2949 core citations up to the end of 2009
  31. 2715 core citations up to the end of 2009
  32. 2711 core citations up to the end of 2009
  33. 2643 core citations up to the end of 2009
  34. 2617 core citations up to the end of 2009
  35. 2610 core citations up to the end of 2009
    Symmetry Breaking Through Bell-Jackiw Anomalies
    Gerard 't Hooft (Harvard U.). Mar 1976. 11 pp.
    Published in Phys.Rev.Lett. 37 (1976) 8-11
    PRINT-76-0254 (HARVARD)
    DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.37.8

  36. 2606 core citations up to the end of 2009
  37. 2605 core citations up to the end of 2009
  38. 2590 core citations up to the end of 2009
  39. 2585 core citations up to the end of 2009